Death Canyon Trailhead Road to Reopen Thursday Morning

September 29, 2010
The Death Canyon trailhead road and connector trail from the trailhead parking area to the Valley Trail will reopen at dawn on Thursday, Sept. 30. Fire managers on the Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire request that people avoid the burned area adjacent to the trailhead due to safety concerns.

The two-acre test burn area still has some fire and heat in the duff and logs, as well as some charred snags and standing dead trees that may be unstable and ready to topple. The test fire area also has other hazards—such as burned out stump holes, loose rocks and logsthat make walking hazardous.

Fire managers decided to postpone burning the 84-acre unit after fire behavior during the test fire exceeded ecological objectives. The fire burned actively through the two acres in the test site, primarily due to unseasonably warm and dry weather. An engine crew will be monitoring the area for the next few days.

For more information on the Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire or other wildland fires in the area, please log on to

Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire Postponed

September 27, 2010

Fire managers on the Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire decided to postpone burning the 84-acre unit after fire behavior during a test fire exceeded ecological objectives. The fire burned actively through the 5-acre test site, primarily due to unseasonably warm, dry weather. The 45 firefighters assigned to the prescribed fire are remaining in place to keep the test fire within the established perimeter.

The prescribed fire project objectives are to reduce the amount of dead and down trees on the forest floor and to increase spacing between trees, which will reduce the chance of a future wildfire spreading toward developed areas.

“The test fire showed that at the upper end of the prescription—which is the predetermined weather and fuel conditions—the prescribed fire would consume more than our desired objectives,” said Burn Boss Deb Flowers. “We stopped igniting and will re-evaluate burning this unit when we have a cooler, damper weather window.”

Death Canyon Road and the Death Canyon Trail from the trailhead parking area to the Valley Trail junction will remain closed at least through Wednesday September 29. Please check under prescribed fire for updates.

The Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire, combined with the mechanical treatment completed in 2008, is designed to increase the buffer between a wildfire and developed areas. The primary fire management goal for Grand Teton National Park is to allow the natural process of fire to persist within the park while protecting lives and property. The intent of the Phelps Moraine prescribed fire project is to reduce burnable live and dead vegetation to give higher confidence and more flexibility for managers in response to naturally ignited fires.

Phelps Moraine Prescribed Fire Scheduled

Interagency firefighters completed fuels reduction work in 2008 
 along the Death Canyon Road and the Phelps Lake moraine area

September 23, 2010
Teton Interagency fire personnel plan to implement an 84-acre prescribed fire in Grand Teton National Park near Phelps Lake moraine—in an area west of the Death Canyon Road and south of the White Grass Ranger Station—on Monday, September 27. The Phelps Moraine prescribed fire is planned to supplement a mechanical treatment project completed in 2008. Some temporary road and trail closures will be in place during the prescribed fire, including the Death Canyon Road and the Death Canyon Trail from the trailhead parking area to the Valley Trail junction. Please check for closures and updates at

Teton Interagency fire managers plan extensively for prescribed fires, and make sure conditions remain within predetermined parameters throughout the burning process. Prescribed fires are implemented only when the target fuels and weather conditions are within prescription. In addition, several firefighters, as well as engines and helicopters, are typically assigned to conduct a prescribed fire and keep it within a project area. The Phelps Moraine project lies in a shaded and damp area that needed to dry out before a prescribed fire could be effective, which led to a late September operation.

Grand Teton National Park’s primary fire management goal is to allow the natural process of fire to persist within the park while protecting lives and property. The purpose of the Phelps Moraine prescribed fire project is to reduce burnable live and dead vegetation and provide more flexibility for fire managers in responding to naturally ignited fires in the area. Since 1960, eight wildfires have started in the Phelps Moraine area, however, none grew larger than a tenth acre. Fire managers chose to aggressively suppress those wildfires because of the potential threat for spread toward developed areas, including private residences. Those suppression efforts have allowed for a change in the fuel conditions over time.

The combined benefit of the prescribed fire and the previous mechanical treatment will allow for an increase buffer between a wildfire and developed areas, providing agency administrators with opportunities to allow fire to naturally affect the ecosystem in the future.

The Death Canyon Road will close Sunday evening, September 26, at 5 p.m. The road closure will be re-evaluated on Wednesday afternoon, and the road may reopen on Thursday or Friday. For updates on the road opening, please call Traci Weaver, Teton Interagency fire information officer, at 307.739.3692.

Final EIS Released for JH Airport Agreement

September 23, 2010
Grand Teton National Park Superintendent Mary Gibson Scott announced today that the Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension/Final Environmental Impact Statement (Airport/FEIS) is available on the National Park Service (NPS) Planning, Environment and Public Comment (PEPC) website. The Airport/FEIS addresses continued air transportation services at the Jackson Hole Airport through an extension of the term of the 1983 agreement with the United States Department of the Interior (DOI).

The Airport/FEIS takes into account public and agency comments received on the draft environmental impact statement issued in April 2009, and incorporates additional analyses and information collected since that time. The Airport/FEIS considers two alternatives regarding the 1983 agreement: a no action alternative and an NPS preferred alternative.

Under the no action alternative, the 1983 agreement would remain unchanged and would expire on April 27, 2033. Beginning in 2013, however, the amount of time remaining on the agreement would no longer satisfy Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements for funding. Without FAA funding, the Jackson Hole Airport Board would likely be unable to maintain certification for scheduled passenger service for more than a few years. Under the NPS preferred alternative, the authorized term of 1983 agreement would be extended by 20 years through the addition of two 10-year options, thereby allowing the Airport Board to meet FAA funding requirements. The agreement would also be amended to strengthen the requirements of the Airport Board and the NPS to further mitigate and reduce the effects of the airport on park resources.

The NPS intends to issue a Record of Decision at least 30 days after the date of publication of a Notice of Availability by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Federal Register.

In 2005, the NPS initiated a process under the National Environmental Policy Act to address the Jackson Hole Airport Board’s request to extend the term of their agreement. The airport is located on 533 acres of federal land within Grand Teton National Park and operates under the terms of a 1983 agreement between the Airport Board and the DOI. The NPS administers the agreement, which currently authorizes the operation of the airport until April 27, 2033. Under FAA regulations, an airport must own its land or have more than 20 years remaining on its lease or agreement in order to remain eligible for grants from the FAA. Without an extension of the agreement’s term, the airport would lose its eligibility for Airport Improvement Program funding in April of 2013—20 years before the current agreement expires.

Grants from the FAA cover 95 percent of the eligible costs for airfield capital improvement or repair projects that enhance airport safety, capacity, or security, and for projects that address environmental concerns. Over the past decade, this program has funded almost $28 million in projects at the Jackson Hole Airport. Similar funding will be needed in the future to enable the airport to maintain the certification that enables it to provide scheduled commercial passenger service.

A copy of the Airport/FEIS is available online at the PEPC website at Navigate to Grand Teton National Park; select the link for airport agreement and then select the link for document list. The document is also available on the park’s website at

Fire Danger Rating Elevated to High

September 21, 2010
Teton Interagency fire managers elevated the fire danger rating to “High” for both the Bridger-Teton National Forest and Grand Teton National Park as of Tuesday, September 21. Dry vegetation—combined with seasonable temperatures, low humidity and afternoon winds—has increased the potential for fire activity.

When determining fire danger ratings, fire managers use several indices such as the moisture content of grasses, shrubs and trees, the projected weather conditions (including temperatures and possible wind events), the ability of fire to spread after ignition, and the availability of firefighting resources across the country. A high fire danger rating means that fires can start easily and spread quickly.

Local residents and visitors alike should exercise an extra measure of caution and practice heightened fire safety at all times. Responsible steps include making sure that a campfire is thoroughly extinguished and cold to the touch before leaving a campsite.

Unattended or abandoned campfires can quickly escalate into wildfires. The fine for an abandoned campfire is $225, but campers can also be held liable for suppression costs if their campfire becomes a wildfire. Visitors should never leave a fire unattended, and should always prepare for the unexpected by having a water bucket and shovel on hand. This season in the Teton Interagency area, careless campers have left 104 campfires unattended.

Firefighters continue to work on several lightning-caused wildland fires in the Teton Interagency area, managing these for multiple objectives including the improvement of forage conditions for wildlife habitat and for the decrease of fuel build-up to reduce the potential of high-risk wildfires.

The Willow Draw Fire in the Buffalo District of the Bridger-Teton National Forest is .10 of an acre in size  and about 1/2 mile from the boundary of Grand Teton and the national forest. There are no trail or area closures at this time and smoke may be visible in the afternoon.

Fire personnel are patrolling the 4,422-acre Bull Fire. Firefighters and equipment may be added to meet objectives as fire activity increases, or scaled back during quiet periods of the fire. If windy and warmer weather continues, fire activity will become more visible from the road and trails in the area. While there are no closures in place, visitors to the area are reminded to use caution when traveling in the vicinity of the Bull Fire and be aware of high winds and the hazard of falling trees.

The Crystal  Fire, located in the Gros Ventre Wilderness in the Jackson Ranger District, near Crystal Slide and 1/2 mile from the Crystal Creek Trail, is 120 acres. Fire managers are staffing the fire for long-term management. The fire is spreading west and into the Hidden Basin area and backing slowly towards the Crystal Creek Trail. There are no trail or area closures at this time.

Teton Interagency firefighters are also managing several prescribed fires for resource benefits: the most active of which is the 3,530-acre Lower Gros Ventre Fire on the north of Slide Lake, south of the Ditch Creek drainage. While no formal closures are in place, visitors are asked to stay out of the Middle Fork of Ditch Creek until fire activity subsides, and to use caution in the vicinity of the fire.

To report a fire or smoke in either area, call Teton Interagency Dispatch Center at 307.739.3630. For more fire information, please visit the Web at or, or follow GrandTetonNPS or BridgerTetonNF on Twitter.

Celebrate National Public Lands Day

Fall colors frame Mount Moran
near the Oxbow Bend of the Snake River
September 21, 2010
In recognition of the 17th annual National Public Lands Day, Grand Teton National Park will waive entrance fees (including commercial tour fees) on Saturday, September 25. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar has announced that admission fees will be waived to all National Park Service sites as part of an initiative to encourage individuals, families and communities to reconnect with nature and explore America’s great outdoors.

National Public Lands Day began in 1994 with a purpose to increase awareness of the value of all public lands, to foster shared stewardship of America’s national resources, and to encourage people to volunteer their time. Federal land agencies have created partnerships with private individuals and citizen groups in an effort to improve, restore or enhance public lands and to provide opportunities for education, outdoor recreation, and enjoyment during National Public Lands Day and beyond.

“September is a perfect month to experience the beauty and bounty of Grand Teton National Park,” said Superintendent Mary Gibson Scott. “This time of year provides incredible opportunities for visitors to catch the brilliant fall colors and watch fascinating wildlife such as elk, moose, bears and pikas as they exhibit their traditional autumn behavior. We hope many people take advantage of this entry fee day and come to visit Grand Teton to enjoy great activities like hiking, fishing, boating and photography.”

National Public Lands Day is the only time that entrance fees are systematically waived on all public lands across America. Fees will be waived at the national park units, as well as other land management sites including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Forest Service areas. In addition to National Public Lands Day, United States veterans are admitted free to national parks each year on Veteran’s Day in November.

Visitors are reminded that the fee waiver applies to entrance fees only and does not affect use fees for camping or boating. For more information on fee-free opportunities in park units around the country, please visit

Black Bear Cub Killed by Vehicle in Grand Teton

September 17, 2010
A female black bear cub was hit and killed by a motorist about
10 p.m. Wednesday, September 15, on Highway 26/89/191 just north of the junction for Meadow Road in Grand Teton National Park. The young cub of the year was following its mother and a sibling cub across the highway when it was hit by a resident of Moran, Wyoming.

The local driver reported the incident and waited on scene for the arrival of a park ranger. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, a motor vehicle operator is required to report an accident involving property damage, personal injury, or death—which includes the injury or death of wildlife. The driver told the ranger that he swerved to avoid the animals crossing the road, but hit the cub that was the last in line.

This is the second bear fatality caused by a vehicle on park roads this year. In early June, a 3 1/2-year-old male grizzly bear was hit and killed on Highway 89/191 just south of the Spread Creek Bridge. Three other incidents involving vehicles hitting bears have also been reported this summer. On August 13, a black bear cub was hit on Highway 89/191 near the Snake River Overlook, but it ran away and its welfare after the accident is unknown. Two other bears (unverified species) were hit by vehicles: one incident occurred on July 26 near Pilgrim Creek Road, and the other happened August 19 south of the Triangle X Ranch. In both cases, the bears ran away from the accident scene with unknown injuries.

Each year in Grand Teton, an average of one or more bears (grizzly and/or black bears) are involved in vehicle collisions that result in the injury or death of the animal. In the past five years, vehicle-related deaths of bears include: 2006, one black bear; 2007, two black bears and one grizzly bear cub; 2009, one black bear; and 2010, one grizzly bear, one black bear cub, and one black bear cub and two other bears (unverified species) that were injured but left the scene.

These encounters between vehicles and bears —among other wildlife accidents—serve as a reminder that animals actively cross and use park roads. Motorists are reminded to drive the posted speed limit and be prepared to stop suddenly for wildlife along or on park roadways. Driving slower than indicated speed limits—especially at night—can increase the margin of safety for people and animals. Collisions between motor vehicles and wildlife may result in severe damage to a vehicle, serious or fatal injuries to the occupants of that vehicle, and/or death for the animal involved.

In addition to bears, other wildlife such as wolves, elk, moose, bison, deer, pronghorn antelope, as well as smaller creatures such as beavers, marmots, and porcupines may also be encountered on or near park roads. Many of these animals have been killed by vehicle collisions during the past few months. As of the first week of August, a total of 107 animals have been hit and killed on park roads, compared to 71 animals killed during the same period in 2009.

More than 35 animals have been killed this year compared to last and the fall migration has yet to begin. Wildlife mortalities from vehicles generally increase during the fall and spring migration of large animals such as elk, bison, moose and deer.

Vehicles take a significant toll on park wildlife, resulting in the deaths of well over 100 animals per year.

Visitor Use Study Published on Grand Teton NP

Fifty-two percent of visitors rated hiking/walking as their second
most important activity—scenery/scenic driving rated as #1.

Visitors relax in lobby of Jackson Lake Lodge at Grand Teton NP.
Overall satisfaction with park facilities rated high (96 percent).

September 7, 2010
A visitor use study recently published by the Park Studies Unit at the University of Idaho shows the changing dynamics in visitation trends at Grand Teton National Park in the past eleven years. A similar study was conducted in 1997 and the comparison with the 2008 survey indicates that fewer children and a slightly older population are now visiting Grand Teton. In addition, two-thirds of the people surveyed were visiting for the first time, and spending more time and more money in the park. Eighty-six percent of visitor groups used one vehicle to arrive at the park, and many used the internet as a primary source for planning their trip.

In an effort to gather demographic and other information about Grand Teton’s 3.8 million annual visitors, the new visitor use survey was conducted by University of Idaho and park staff from July 13-19, 2008. Not surprising perhaps, was the fact that three-quarters
(77 percent) of visitors to Grand Teton reported their primary activity to be viewing scenery and/or taking a scenic drive; hiking/walking rated as the second most important activity at
52 percent. When polled about which location received the greatest focus and use, the Jenny Lake area proved to be the most popular.

Visitor spending more than doubled since the last study was conducted in 1997. In 2008, each visitor group spent on average $1,388 compared to $575 per visitor group in 1997. According to a 2004 report by Loomis and Koontz, visitor spending contributes
$590 million annually to the greater Jackson Hole area economy and the economic effect of park visitation is responsible for 30 percent of the local income and 56 percent of jobs in both Teton County, Wyoming and Teton County, Idaho.

The 2008 visitor survey showed that more local residents are getting out and enjoying their backyard park with 5 percent visitation from Teton County compared to just 2 percent in 1997; and more international visitors are traveling to Grand Teton. Domestic visitation came mostly from California (12 percent), Utah (7 percent) and Wyoming (7 percent). Ten percent of total visitation was from international visitors. The greatest number of international visitors hailed from Canada (18 percent), the United Kingdom (17 percent), Germany (10 percent) and the Netherlands (10 percent).

Survey respondents ranked the park brochure/map as the most commonly used and most important source of information. Also,
92 percent of visitors rated assistance from park staff as their most valued source of information. The overall quality of visitor facilities, services and recreational activities were rated as very good, and the overall satisfaction with services increased from 92 percent in 1997 to 96 percent in 2008.

For a summary of the 2008 report, visit, view the whole report at

Road Construction on Pacific Creek Road

September 7, 2010
Construction work on Pacific Creek Road in Grand Teton National Park will begin next week. Roadwork will be underway from one mile north of the junction with Highway 26/287 to the Two Ocean Lake Road. Park visitors and residents of Pacific Creek Road are advised to plan for travel restrictions to be in place Monday through Friday from Monday, September 13 to mid-November. Construction activities will require temporary delays of up to 30 minutes and possible road closures. No weekend work is expected at this time, but may occur if necessary to complete the project before winter weather sets in.

Residents and visitors who wish to access Pacific Creek Road, Two Ocean Lake Road, trails to Two Ocean and Emma Matilda lakes,
and the Bridger Teton National Forest should expect delays of up to 30 minutes at any time of the day or night during weekdays. Additionally, full road closures may be implemented between the hours of 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. Monday through Friday in order to complete the project. Passage of emergency vehicles will be accommodated whenever necessary.

Notification of road closures will be given approximately one week in advance. Updates will be recorded on the park’s road information hotline at 307.739.3614. Information will also be found on the park’s website at

The Pacific Creek Road construction project is necessary to repair a section of the roadbed that was damaged by the erosion of a supporting hillside and the subsequent collapse of a portion of the road’s edge. The project will stabilize the embankment, widen the road through a steep cutbank area, and provide long-term protection for this secondary park road that serves visitors and residents of the Pacific Creek subdivision near Grand Teton’s northeast boundary. In 2007, concrete barriers were placed on the narrowed section of eroded roadway as a safety precaution; however, the creek continued to wear away the embankment and threaten the integrity of the road itself. Stabilization of the steep cutbank slope is necessary to ensure that the road remains useable and safe.

The project’s design calls for certain steps to be taken to minimize impacts to the wild and scenic character of Pacific Creek. Those steps include reseeding of the cutbank with native plants and the placement of logs to screen boulders that will be placed at the toe of the slope to stabilize the cutbank and reduce its continued erosion.

Roadwork schedules may change or be delayed due to weather conditions, equipment failure, or other unforeseen circumstances.

Ranger-led Programs on Tap for September

Special ranger-led hikes & programs
will be offered throughout September.
September 3, 2010
To celebrate the special nature of autumn in the Tetons, a variety of programs will be offered beginning Tuesday, September 7. These ranger-led activities provide visitors with opportunities to learn about geology, history, and wildlife while enjoying fall colors and other park activities. The 2010 fall schedule includes:

Inspiration Point Hike, a 2.5-hour hike to Hidden Falls and a scenic overlook above Jenny Lake, 9:30 a.m. daily. Check in at the Jenny Lake Visitor Center. Boat ride costs $10.00 for adults (roundtrip).
Explore the Preserve Hike, a 2.5-hour hike to Phelps Lake to experience the pristine setting of the Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve, 9:30 a.m. daily. Reservations recommended. Call 307.739.3654.
Map Chat, a 30-minute talk about geology, park wildlife, and the stories behind the scenery, 11:30 a.m. daily at the Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center fireplace.
Teton Highlights, a 30-minute travel planner, 11 a.m. daily in Colter Bay Visitor Center auditorium.
Autumn at the Preserve, an informal chat with a ranger about the unique changes that occur in animals and plants during the fall season. Between 11:30 a.m. & 1 p.m. daily on the LSR Preserve Center porch.
Eco Chat, a 30-minute chat about our changing landscape and the sustainability features of the Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve Center, 2 p.m. daily at the LSR Preserve Center.
Museum Grand Tour, a 45-minute tour of the David T. Vernon Indian Arts collection, 3 p.m. daily in the Colter Bay Visitor Center and Indian Arts Museum.
Wildlife Caravan, a 3-hour wildlife auto-tour, 5-8 p.m. daily from the Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center. Travel to various locations throughout the park to look for and learn about wildlife; ends just before dark when elk begin to bugle. Limited to 10 vehicles. Reservations required; call 739.3399 or stop by a visitor center to secure a spot. Dress warmly and bring binoculars and/or spotting scopes.
Autumn Stroll, a 2.5-hour moderate hike to Taggart Lake, 1 p.m. on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday only. Meet at the Taggart Lake trailhead; Bring water and be prepared for variable weather.
Wildlife Watch at Oxbow Bend, a 90-minute wildlife watch offered at 6 p.m. daily at Oxbow Bend Scenic Turnout. Bring binoculars, cameras and questions.
Jenny Lake Twilight Talk, 45-minute ranger talk, 6:30 p.m., Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday at Jenny Lake Campground Circle.
Signal Mountain Campfire Program, 45-minute ranger talk, 6:30 p.m., Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday at Signal Mountain Campground Amphitheater.

Most of the fall programs will be offered through September 26; however, the schedule is subject to change. For weekly updates on programs, or further information on any of the listed activities—as well as information on special programs being offered throughout September—please call the Craig Thomas Discovery Center at 307.739.3399, the Colter Bay Visitor Center at 307.739.3594 or the LSR Preserve Center at 307.739.3654.

The Craig Thomas, Colter Bay, Jenny Lake and Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve visitor centers are open daily during the month of September. The Jenny Lake and Rockefeller Preserve visitor centers both close for the 2010 season on September 26, and the Colter Bay Visitor Center closes on October 11. The Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center is open year-round.

Closing Dates for Services in Grand Teton

September 3, 2010
Visitor services at Grand Teton National Park will make the annual transition from fall to winter season during the next few weeks. The following list reflects the closing dates that will occur during September and October.

Lizard Creek — September 6 (Noon)
Flagg Ranch — September 26 (Noon)
Colter Bay — September 27 (11 am)

Ranger Stations & Visitor Centers
Flagg Ranch Information Station — September 6 (Noon)
Jenny Lake Ranger Station — September 19 (5 pm)
Jenny Lake Visitor Center — September 26 (4:30 pm)
Laurance Rockefeller Preserve Center — September 26 (5 pm)

Jenny Lake — October 3 (11 am)
Gros Ventre — October 8 (11 am)
Signal Mountain — October 17 (11 am)

Ranger Stations & Visitor Centers
Colter Bay Visitor Center — October 11 (5 pm)

Entrance Stations
Granite Canyon — October 31 (5 pm)
Moose — October 31 (5 pm)
Moran — October 31 (5 pm)
Road Closures
Moose-Wilson Road — October 31 (evening)
Teton Park Road — October 31 (evening)
Colter Bay Village — September 26 (11 am)
Flagg Ranch — September 26 (Noon)
Jackson Lake Lodge — October 3 (11 am)
Triangle X Ranch — October 9
Jenny Lake Lodge — October 10 (Noon)
Signal Mountain Lodge — October 17 (11 am)

For detailed information on facility closures, please phone 307.739.3300, or consult the park’s newspaper, Teewinot, online at The winter operation schedule will be announced in December.

Hayfield Restoration Burn Planned

September 1, 2010 
Teton Interagency fire personnel and Grand Teton National Park natural resource managers plan to burn the 42-acre Elbo West unit as soon as weather permits. The Elbo West unit is part of a 4,000-acre native rangeland restoration project in Grand Teton. The project involves a multistage effort to convert pasture land back to native vegetation as outlined in the 2007 Bison and Elk Management Plan for the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park.

The Elbo West was originally a 182-acre unit, but after park personnel discovered a sharp-tailed grouse lek (a mating arena) on the proposed site this spring, resource managers opted to leave the lek area undisturbed while the birds were in the vicinity. Instead, fire managers burned the Elbo East unit during the spring project and have also removed the lek area from the burn planned for this fall.

Located southwest of the Teton Science School-Ditch Creek Road, the Elbo West burn unit was an irrigated hayfield prior to the 1970s. Despite a decades-long recovery time, non-native grasses and a host of noxious weeds still dominate the area.

Firefighters will only ignite burn units when favorable weather and fire behavior conditions exist. Smoke will be evident during the day of the burn. Smoke from larger prescribed fires may persist for several days after, especially in mountain valleys during early morning and evening hours. Local residents and visitors should be aware that minimal traffic restrictions may occur during the burn for safety concerns and fire equipment access.